Paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with COVID-19 (PIMS-TS): a narrative review and the viewpoint of the Latin American Society of Pediatric Intensive Care (SLACIP) Sepsis Committee
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Background In this review, we discuss some important aspects of paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with COVID-19 (PIMS-TS), a new syndrome that is temporally related to previous exposure to SARS-CoV-2 infection. This virus has a broad spectrum of presentation that may overlap with Kawasaki disease in terms of presenting symptoms and laboratory and cardiac findings. Our objective was to review and summarise published evidence regarding the most important aspects of PIMS-TS, with special emphasis on the treatment strategies suggested for middle-income and low-income countries. Methods A systematic review of the literature was performed in the principal medical databases including PubMed, Embase (OVID) and Google Scholar between December 2019 and August 2020. Results A total of 69 articles were identified in the described databases. Altogether, 13 articles met the inclusion criteria and were eligible. The most frequently described symptoms of PIMS-TS include fever (82%), shock (67%) and gastrointestinal (87%), skin (71%) and cardiac disorders (75%). In most series, it has been observed between 4 and 6 weeks after the pandemic appears in the general population. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children is presented as a great systemic inflammatory response syndrome, which sometimes presents as shock requiring fluid resuscitation and vasoactive drug support (26%). Several treatment strategies have been used, including immunoglobulin, steroids, aspirin, anakinra and anticoagulation among others. These general and specific interventions should be guided by an interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary team, especially in settings with limited resources. Conclusions PIMS-TS COVID-19 is a new type of presentation of SARS-CoV-2 infection, with an exaggerated inflammatory response and frequent—but not exclusive—digestive and myocardial involvement. It is important to describe the clinical course and outcomes in countries with limited resources as well as establish the role of biomarkers for early diagnosis, effective therapeutic strategies and outpatient follow-up schemes.
BMJ Paediatrics Open, 5 (1), 1-9
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