Evaluation of the effects of ohmic and vacuum cooking on the sensorial and physicochemical properties of pork meat (short shank)
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AuthorÁngel Rendón, Sara Victoria
In Colombia, pork meat is the third most consumed meat source, and while it is of relatively low consumption compared to other countries in Latin America, it is present in a wide variety of preparations in the country, and it is part of the Colombian diet. One of the most important characteristics of foods is heterogeneity, and in meat cooking, it is evidenced by the different cuts found in markets, as they are not a single isolated muscle, but a compendium of different muscles, connective tissue, fat tissue and, at times, bone. Ohmic cooking is a novel technique that, until the past two decades, has been studied for the application on meat cooking, but without widespread commercial application. Characterized by volumetric heating that is dependent on electrical conductivity instead of thermal conductivity, it is an innovative application in the gastronomic sector for the homogenous heating of foods. On the other hand, vacuum cooking consists on cooking under continuous vacuum conditions where sub-atmospheric pressures are achieved, thus resulting in the boiling of water at temperatures below 100°C, and can contribute to the preservation of nutritional and sensorial characteristics of the food matrixes. For meat, sensorial characteristics like colour, flavour, juiciness and softness are some of the “drivers of liking”, or the most important parameters that dictate the preference of consumers at the point of purchase for meat products. Hence, this research proposed to establish the effects of cooking technologies like ohmic and vacuum cooking, on physicochemical and sensorial characteristics of pork meat, specifically short shank. For this, the cooking loss, water holding capacity, colour and sensorial profile of ohmic cooking (21 ± 1 V/cm for 2, 2.5 and 3 minutes) and vacuum cooking (70°C for 25, 30 and 35 minutes) were studied and compared with pan cooking (13 minutes) and sous vide cooking (70°C for 45 minutes) respectively.