Show simple item record

dc.contributor.advisorAyala Zárate, Jair
dc.contributor.authorMiranda E., Alexander
dc.identifier.citationAn, S. (2013). Schema theory in reading. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 3(1), 130– 134.
dc.identifier.citationBarret, T. C. (1976). Taxonomy of reading comprehension. In C. Smith & T. C. Barrett (Eds.), Teaching reading in the midde class. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
dc.identifier.citationBenito, Y. M., Foley, C. L., Craig, D., & Prescott, P. (1993). The effect of instruction in quest ion-answer relationships and metacognition on social studies comprehension. Journal of Research in Reading, 16(1), 20–29.
dc.identifier.citationBensoussan, M., & Ramraz, R. (1984). Testing EFL Reading Comprehension Using a MultipleChoice Rational Cloze. The Modern Language Journal, 68(3), 230–239.
dc.identifier.citationBlaxter, L., Hughes, C., & Tight, M. (2010). How to research (4th ed.). Berkshire: Open University Press/McGraw-Hill Education.
dc.identifier.citationBlock, E. L. (1992). See how they read: Comprehension monitoring of L1 and L2 Readers. TESOL Quarterly, 26(2), 319–343.
dc.identifier.citationBloom, B. S., Engelhart, M. D., Furst, E. J., Hill, W. H., & Krathwohl, D. R. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives, handbook I: The cognitive domain. New York: David McKay Co Inc.
dc.identifier.citationBrown, H. D. (2007). Principles of language learning and teaching (5th ed.). White Plains: Pearson Longman.
dc.identifier.citationBuehl, D. (2001). Classroom strategies for interactive learning. Delaware: International Reading Asociation.
dc.identifier.citationBurns, A. (2010). Doing action research in English language teaching?: A guide for practitioners. New York: Routledge.
dc.identifier.citationCarrell, P. L. (1983). Three components of background knowledge in reading comprehension. Language Learning, 33(2), 183–203.
dc.identifier.citationCED-ARP. (2013). Proyecto educativo institucional, colegio Aldemar Rojas Plazas: Por una Colombia productiva y en paz [Institutional educational project, Aldemar Rojas Plazas school: for a productive and peaceful Colombia]. Retrieved from
dc.identifier.citationCED-ARP. (2015). Enfoque pedagógico: aprender a aprender [pedagogical focus: learn to learn]. Retrieved from
dc.identifier.citationChan, V. (2000). Fostering learner autonomy in an ESL classroom. TESL Canada Journal, 18(1), 75–86. Retrieved from
dc.identifier.citationCohen, L; Manion, L. & Morrison, K. (2007). Research methods in education (6th ed.). New York: Routledge.
dc.identifier.citationCoiro, J., & Dobler, E. (2007). Exploring the online reading comprehension strategies used by sixth-grade skilled readers to search for and locate information on the Internet. Reading Research Quarterly, 42(2), 214–257.
dc.identifier.citationCorbin, J. M., & Strauss, A. L. (2015). Basics of qualitative research?: techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory (4th ed.). Los Angeles: SAGE Publications.
dc.identifier.citationCortese, E. E. (2003). The application of Question-Answer Relationship strategies to pictures. Reading Teacher, 57(4), 374–380.
dc.identifier.citationCouncil, B. (2009). Teacher diary. Retrieved May 23, 2016, from
dc.identifier.citationCraig, D. V. (2009). Action research essentials. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
dc.identifier.citationCreswell, J. W. (2009). Research design?: qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications.
dc.identifier.citationCummins, S., Streiff, M., & Ceprano, M. (2012). Understanding and applying the QAR strategy to improve test scores. Journal of Inquiry & Action in Education, 4(3), 18–26.
dc.identifier.citationDenzin, N. K., & Lincoln, Y. S. (2011). The Sage handbook of qualitative research (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications.
dc.identifier.citationDudeney, G., & Hockly, N. (2007). How to teach English with technology. Edinburgh Gate: Pearson/Longman.
dc.identifier.citationDuke, N., & Pearson, P. D. (2002). Effective strategies for developing reading comprehension. In What research has to say about reading instruction (3rd ed., pp. 205–242). Newark: International Reading Asociation.
dc.identifier.citationEcheverri Acosta, L. M., & McNulty Ferri, M. (2010). Reading Strategies to Develop Higher Thinking Skills for Reading Comprehension. PROFILE Issues in Teachers’ Professional Development, 12, 107–123.
dc.identifier.citationEmerson, R. M., Fretz, R. I., & Shaw, L. L. (2011). Writing ethnographic fieldnotes (2nd ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago.
dc.identifier.citationGao, Y. (2013). The effect of summary writing on reading comprehension: The role of mediation in EFL classroom. Reading Improvement, 50(2), 43–47.
dc.identifier.citationGlaser, B. (2002). Conceptualization: On Theory and Theorizing Using Grounded Theory. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 1(2), 1–31.
dc.identifier.citationGlaser, B. G., & Strauss, A. L. (1967). The Discovery of Grounded Theory: strategies for qualitative research. New Jersey: AldineTransaction.
dc.identifier.citationGreen, S. (2016). Two for One: Using QAR to Increase Reading Comprehension and Improve Test Scores. Reading Teacher, 70(1), 103–109.
dc.identifier.citationGutierrez, C., & Salmerón, H. (2012). Estrategias de comprension lectora: Enseñanza y evaluación en educacion primaria [Strategies for reading comprehension: teaching and assessment in primary education]. Profesorado, Revista de Currículum Y Formación Del Profesorado, 16, 183–202.
dc.identifier.citationHallberg, L. R.-M. (2006). The “core category” of grounded theory: Making constant comparisons. International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-Being, 1(3), 141–148.
dc.identifier.citationHalliday, M. A. K., & Matthiessen, C. M. I. M. (2013). Halliday’s introduction to functional grammar (4th ed.). New York: Routledge.
dc.identifier.citationHammerly, H., & Colhoun, E. R. (1984). Rational multiple-choice cloze and progress testing. Hispania, 67(3), 411–415.
dc.identifier.citationHarmer, J. (2007). How to teach English. Harlow: Pearson Longman.
dc.identifier.citationHemmati, F., & Bemani, S. (2013). Comparing Effect of “Summarizing”, “Question-Answer Relationship”, and “Syntactic Structure Identification” on the Reading Comprehension of Iranian EFL students. International Journal of Applied Linguistics & English Literature, 2(1), 151–156.
dc.identifier.citationHolec, H., & Council of Europe. (1981). Autonomy and foreign language learning. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
dc.identifier.citationHubbard, P. (2009). Computer assisted language learning. (P. Hubbard, Ed.). London: Routledge.
dc.identifier.citationICFES. (2016). Sistema Nacional de Evaluación Estandarizada de la Educación: Alineación del examen Saber 11 [National system of standardized tests of education: Saber 11 test alingment] (3rd ed.). Bogotá: ICFES.
dc.identifier.citationIzquierdo Castillo, A., & Jiménez Bonilla, S. (2014). Building up autonomy through reading strategies. PROFILE Issues in Teachers’ Professional Developmentt.
dc.identifier.citationJimenez Pulido, C. (2009). Webquests and the improvement of critical reading skills in a group of university students. INTELLECTUM, Universidad de la Sabana.
dc.identifier.citationKamil, M. L., Borman, G. D., Dole, J., Kral, Cathleen, C., Salinger, T., & Torgesen, J. (2008). Improving adolescent literacy: Effective classroom and intervention practices. Retrieved from
dc.identifier.citationKaragiorgi, Y., & Symeou, L. (2005). Translating constructivism into instructional design: Potential and limitations. Educational Technology and Society, 8(1), 17–27.
dc.identifier.citationKelle, U. (2005). “Emergence” vs “forcing” of empirical data? A crucial of “grounded theory” reconsidered. Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung, 6(2).
dc.identifier.citationKinniburgh, L. H., & Prew, S. S. (2010). Question answer relationships (QAR) in the primary grades: Laying the foundation for reading comprehension. International Journal of Early Childhood Special Education, 2(1), 31–44.
dc.identifier.citationKinniburgh, L. H., & Shaw, E. L. (2009). Using question-answer relationships to build: Reading comprehension in science. Science Activities: Classroom Projects and Curriculum Ideas, 45(4), 19–28.
dc.identifier.citationKrashen, S. D. (1985). The input hypothesis : Issues and implications. New York: Longman.
dc.identifier.citationKumaravadivelu, B. (2006). Understanding language teaching: From method to postmethod. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.
dc.identifier.citationLeino, K. (2014). The relationship between ICT use and reading literacy : focus on 15-year-old Finnish students in PISA studies. Tutkimuksia / Koulutuksen tutkimuslaitos 30. Jyväskylä: University of Jyväskylä, Finnish Institute for Educational Research
dc.identifier.citationLevy, M., & Hubbard, P. (2005). Why call CALL “CALL”? Computer Assisted Language Learning, 18(3), 143–149.
dc.identifier.citationLizcano, Y. E. (2015). Enhancing metacognitive reading awareness in blended environments. Universidad de La Sabana. Retrieved from Elizabeth Lizcano Rojas %28tesis%29.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
dc.identifier.citationLopera, S. (2012). Effects of strategy instruction in an EFL reading comprehension course: A case study. PROFILE Issues in Teachers’ Professional Development, 14, 79–89.
dc.identifier.citationLópez, M. E. (2006). Exploring students’ EFL writing through hypertext design. Colombian Applied Linguistics Journal, 8, 74–122
dc.identifier.citationLysaker, J., & Thompson, B. (2013). Teacher research as a practical tool for learning to teach. Language Arts, 90(3), 181–191.
dc.identifier.citationMária, D., László, D., Andrea, H., Péter, S., Tünde, T., & Klára, S. V. (2016). ICT effects on cognitive function in school age. Magyar Pszichologiai Szemle, 71(1), 165–195.
dc.identifier.citationMarzban, A. (2011). Improvement of reading comprehension through computer-assisted language learning in Iranian intermediate EFL students. Procedia Computer Science, 3(1), 3–10.
dc.identifier.citationMcIntosh, M. E., & Draper, R. J. (1996). Using the question-answer relationship strategy to improve students’ reading of athematics texts. The Clearing House: A Journal of Educational Strategies, Issues and Ideas, 69(3), 154–162.
dc.identifier.citationMcNamara, D. S. (2007). Reading comprehension strategies : Theories, interventions, and technologies. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
dc.identifier.citationMejía Mejía, S. (2016). ¿Vamos hacia una Colombia bilingüe? Análisis de la brecha académica entre el sector público y privado en la educación del inglés [Are we going towards a bilingual Colombia? Analysis of the academic gap between the public and private sectors in English ed. Educación Y Educadores, 19(2), 223–237.
dc.identifier.citationMinisterio de Educación Nacional. (2006). Formar en lenguas extranjeras: inglés ¡el reto! [Training in foreign languages: English, the challenge!]. Colombia: Imprenta Nacional. Retrieved from
dc.identifier.citationMorse, J. M., Barrett, M., Mayan, M., Olson, K., & Spiers, J. (2002). Verification strategies for establishing reliability and validity in qualitative research. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 1(2), 13–22
dc.identifier.citationMuzammil, S. (2017). QAR (question answer relationship) as an alternative strategy to teach reading. Journal of Linguistics, Literature and Language Teaching, 2(2), 101–123.
dc.identifier.citationNunan, D. (1991). Language teaching methodology: A textbook for teachers. Hertfordshire: Prentice Hall
dc.identifier.citationNunberg, G. (1996). Farewell to the information age. In The future of the book (pp. 103–133). California: University of California Press.
dc.identifier.citationOrganization for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2014). Education at a glance: OECD indicators. Retrieved from
dc.identifier.citationOuzts, D. T. (1998). Enhancing the connection between literature and the social studies using the question-answer relationship. Social Studies and the Young Learner, 10(4), 26–28.
dc.identifier.citationPappa, E. T., & Tsaparlis, G. (2011). Evaluation of questions in general chemistry textbooks according to the form of the questions and the question-answer relationship (QAR): the case of intra- and intermolecular chemical bonding. Chem. Educ. Res. Pract., 12(2), 262–270.
dc.identifier.citationParan, A. (1996). Reading in EFL: facts and fictions. ELT Journal, 50(1), 25–34. Retrieved from
dc.identifier.citationPardede, P. (2006). A review on reading theories and its implication to the teaching of reading. Retrieved from
dc.identifier.citationPearson, P. D., & Johnson, D. D. (1978). Teaching reading comprehension. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
dc.identifier.citationPearson, P. D., & Raphael, T. E. (1990). Reading comprehension as a dimension of thinking. In Dimensions of thinking and cognitive instruction (pp. 209–240). Hilsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.
dc.identifier.citationPerkins, D. N. (1992). What constructivism demands of the learners. In T. M. Duffy & D. H. Jonassen (Eds.), Constructivism and the technology of instruction: A conversation (pp. 161– 166). Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.
dc.identifier.citationPoole, A. (2009). The Reading Strategies Used by Male and Female Colombian University Students. PROFILE Issues in Teachers’ Professional Development, 11, 29–40.
dc.identifier.citationPraveen, D., & Rajan, P. (2013). Using graphic organizers to improve reading comprehension skills for the middle school ESL students. English Language Teaching, 6(2), 155–170.
dc.identifier.citationRaphael, T. E. (1982). Question-answering strategies for children. The Reading Teacher, 36(2), 186–190.
dc.identifier.citationRaphael, T. E. (1986). Teaching question answer relationships, revisited. The Reading Teacher, 39(6), 516–522.
dc.identifier.citationRaphael, T. E., & Au, K. H. (2005). QAR: Enhancing comprehension and test taking across grades and content areas. Reading Teacher, 59(3), 206–221.
dc.identifier.citationRaphael, T. E., & Wonnacott, C. A. (1981). The effect of metacognitive awareness training on question-answering behavior: implementation in a fourth grade developmental reading program. Urbana-Champaign: University of Illinois.
dc.identifier.citationRevista Semana. (2015). Los mejores colegios de la Región Andina [The best schools in the Andean region]. Retrieved from
dc.identifier.citationRinji, D. N., & Ohiare, U. M. F. (2017). Infusing skills acquisition contents in reading comprehension via information and communication technologies ( ICTs ) for economic empowerment in Nigeria. Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal, 4(5), 124–132.
dc.identifier.citationRíos Olaya, S. R., & Valcárcel Goyeneche, A. M. (2005). Reading: A meaningful way to promote learning English in high school. PROFILE Issues in Teachers’ Professional Development, 6, 59–72.
dc.identifier.citationRoa Pinzón, M. A. (2014). Making connections: impact of graphic organizers in reading comprehension and summarization. Universidad de La Sabana. Retrieved from inz_n.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
dc.identifier.citationRobinson, G. L. (2002). Assessment of learning disabilities: The complexity of causes and consequences. Australian Journal of Learning Disabilities, 7(1), 29–39.
dc.identifier.citationRojas, L. M. (2001). Teaching reading in large classes. PROFILE Issues in Teachers’ Professional Development, 2, 71–77.
dc.identifier.citationSamuels, S. J. (1997). The method of repeated readings. The Reading Teacher, 50(5), 376–381. Retrieved from
dc.identifier.citationSarrab, M., Al-Shihi, H., & Hussain Rehman, O. M. (2013). Exploring major challenges and benefits of M-learning adoption. British Journal of Applied Science & Technology, 3(34), 826–839.
dc.identifier.citationSnow, C. E. (2002). Reading for understanding: Toward an R & D program in reading comprehension. Santa Monica: Rand.
dc.identifier.citationSquires, D. (1999). Educational software for constructivist learning environments: Subversive use and volatile design. Educational Technology, 39(3), 48–54
dc.identifier.citationStafford, T. (2012). The effect of question-answer relationships on ninth-grade students’ ability to accurately answer comprehension questions. University of Central Florida. Retrieved from
dc.identifier.citationStorch, N. (2001). How collaborative is pair work? ESL tertiary students composing in pairs. Language Teaching Research, 5(1), 29–53.
dc.identifier.citationTreiman, R. (2003). Linguistics and reading. In M. Aronoff & J. Rees-Miller (Eds.), The handbook of linguistics (p. 824). Oxford: Blackwell.
dc.identifier.citationVargas, N., & Abouchaar, A. (2001). Project work as the central part of the curriculum. PROFILE Issues in Teachers’ Professional Development, 2, 83–86.
dc.identifier.citationVaughn, S., & Bos, C. S. (2012). Strategies for teaching students with learning and behavior problems (5th ed.). Boston: Pearson.
dc.identifier.citationVygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society : The development of higher psychological processes. (M. Cole, V. John-Steiner, S. Scribner, & E. Souberman, Eds.). Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
dc.identifier.citationWells, H. G. (n.d.). The Red Room. Retrieved from
dc.identifier.citationWoolley, G. (2011). Reading comprehension: Assisting children with learning difficulties. Dordrecht: Springer.
dc.identifier.citationYunus, M. M., Nordin, N., Salehi, H., Sun, C. H., & Embi, M. A. (2013). Pros and cons of using ICT in teaching ESL reading and writing. International Education Studies, 6(7), 119–130.
dc.description113 Páginas.es_CO
dc.description.abstractLa comprensión de lectura juega un papel trascendental en el aprendizaje de una lengua. Investigaciones anteriores han resaltado la importancia de estrategias de lectura y cómo los estudiantes deben ser entrenados en cómo aplicarlas para así mejorar su comprensión lectora. Sin embargo, se le ha dado poca atención al uso de la estrategia de relaciones pregunta-respuesta (QAR, por sus siglas en inglés) apoyada por TIC. El presente estudio cualitativo de investigación-acción utilizó diarios de profesor, encuestas y artefactos de estudiantes para recoger la información sobre el impacto de la estrategia QAR, aplicada en textos interactivos cortos, en la comprensión lectora de los estudiantes en un colegio público colombiano. La información fue analizada a través del planteamiento de la teoría fundamentada. Los resultados indicaron que los estudiantes mejoraron sus habilidades de comprensión lectora usando estrategias de lectura y aprendizaje colaborativo durante la clase.; sin embargo, los resultados en las evaluaciones no cambiaron. Esto lleva a la conclusión de que QAR apoyadas por TIC es un método efectivo para la comprensión lectora, no obstante, los estudiantes deben ser entrenados adecuadamente en su uso.es_CO
dc.publisherUniversidad de La Sabanaes_CO
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International*
dc.sourceUniversidad de La Sabana
dc.sourceIntellectum Repositorio Universidad de La Sabana
dc.subjectComprensión de lectura
dc.subjectNuevas tecnologías de la información y de la comunicación
dc.subjectInnovaciones educativas
dc.titleHow reading comprehension is affected by means of ICT in question-answer relationship strategy in EFL classroomes_CO
dc.publisher.programMaestría en Didáctica del Inglés con Énfasis en Ambientes de Aprendizaje Autónomoes_CO
dc.publisher.departmentDepartamento de Lenguas y Culturas Extranjerases_CO
dc.type.localTesis de maestría
dc.creator.degreeMagíster en Didáctica del Inglés con Énfasis en Ambientes de Aprendizaje Autónomoes_CO

Files in this item


This item appears in the following Collection(s)

Show simple item record

Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 InternationalExcept where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International